简明量子力学课程详细信息

课程号 00433331 学分 2
英文名称 Simplified quantum mechanics
先修课程 无。有高中数学和物理基础即可
中文简介 量子力学诞生于二十世纪初,是科学史上最深刻的革命之一。它颠覆了经典物理中许多基本观念,为我们描绘原子分子以及更小基本粒子的神奇行为,而且它带来的技术革命已经并正在深刻改变人类社会的方方面面。尽管它是如此的重要,但很长一段时间量子力学只被物理学家以及少数化学家和哲学家关心。最近随着量子信息技术的发展,量子力学越来越为大众所关注。

本课程试图向北大所有学生(包括文科生)严肃而又通俗地介绍量子力学。通俗即向尽可能多的人讲述和展示量子力学的美妙和神奇。严肃即意味着用数学来描述量子力学中最深刻的结果,而不只是文字叙述。不用数学是不可能准确理解任何科学的。北大学生都熟悉高中的数学知识。对于任何超越高中水平的数学,比如矩阵,线性空间等,我将按照需要多少讲解多少的方式介绍,适可而止不过分深入。因此这些超越高中水平的数学也不难,只要学生有耐心去做些简单的课后练习,就很快会熟悉和掌握。没有练习就没有理解。

本课程将先简单描述量子力学的发展历史,介绍量子之父们和他们传奇的事迹,然后尽量在高中物理的水平上简单概述经典物理。在这些铺垫之后,开始讲述神奇的量子力学:量子态,量子几率,线性叠加,量子纠缠,贝尔不等式,海森堡不确定关系,薛定谔猫,量子全同性,量子测量,量子通信,量子计算,多世界解释等。
英文简介 Quantum mechanics was established in the early 20th century,  and is one of the most profound revolutions in science history. It overthrows many basic concepts held sacred in classical mechanics, and gives us an accurate description of  behaviors of atoms, molecules, and other fundamental particles. It has also brought us technological innovations that are deeply reshaping our human society. Despite its importance, quantum mechanics has remained a subject that is discussed only among physicist and a few chemists and philosophers for many years. In recent days, quantum mechanics has become a subject frequenting social media as the result of the technical developments in the filed of quantum information.

This course is to introduce quantum mechanics both popularly and rigorously. By popular, it intends to be accessible to as many students as possible; by rigorous, it involves some advanced mathematics. It is impossible to accurately understand a scientific subject without mathematics.  The course is designed for all students at Peking University, who should be skilled at high school mathematics. Any mathematics beyond high school level, such as matrix and linear space, will be covered in the course in a depth that is just enough to understand related quantum physics.  To master and understand these advanced mathematical subjects, students are encouraged to do exercises left at the end of each class. No practice no understanding.

This course will tell a brief  history of quantum mechanics, summarizing the breakthrough made by the quantum heroes. After a short description of classical physics at the level of high school physics, the course begins to cover the following subjects: quantum states, quantum probability, superposition principle, quantum entanglement, Bell’s inequalities, Schroedinger's cast, quantum identical particles, quantum measurements, quantum communication, quantum computing, and many-world interpretation.
开课院系 物理学院
通选课领域  
是否属于艺术与美育
平台课性质  
平台课类型  
授课语言 中文
教材 无;
quantum mechanics,Leonard Susskind,Basic Books,2014,
参考书 第一版,9780465062904;
教学大纲 本课程将以尽量简单的数学向北大所有学生严肃介绍量子力学,让北大学生对量子力学有个基本的了解,能够做一些最简单的量子力学里的计算去亲自体验一下量子力学的神奇。希望学生在上完本课以后,能对量子力学和相关的技术有个比较清晰的了解,能辨析大众媒体里量子力学方面的报道。
一、 量子力学简史 (2个课时)
二、 经典力学 (2个课时)
三、迈入量子力学 (4个课时)
四、施特恩-格拉赫实验;(2)复数、矩阵;(3)量子态、几率解释
五、纠缠和贝尔不等式 (6个课时)
    (1)量子和经典纠缠;(2)可观测量、本征态、本征值;(3)沿空间任意方向的自旋算符;(4)贝尔不等式
六、线性叠加和双缝干涉  (4个课时)
     (1)线性叠加原理;(2)量子不可克隆定理;(3)双缝干涉
七、量子测量  (2个课时)
八、量子动力学 (2个课时)
九、量子波函数和粒子的全同性 (1个课时)
十、量子通信  (3个课时)
     (1)经典保密通迅;(2)量子通讯
十一、量子计算  (2个课时)
      (1)经典计算;(2)量子计算
十二、大众媒体里的量子力学 (2个课时)
课堂讲授,课后有练习,没有教材,但有讲义
开卷考试
教学评估 吴飙:
学年度学期:18-19-1,课程班:简明量子力学1,课程推荐得分:0.0,教师推荐得分:9.24,课程得分分数段:95-100;
学年度学期:18-19-2,课程班:简明量子力学1,课程推荐得分:0.0,教师推荐得分:9.75,课程得分分数段:95-100;
学年度学期:19-20-2,课程班:简明量子力学1,课程推荐得分:0.0,教师推荐得分:9.84,课程得分分数段:80及以下;